Allred, Lee. Assembled Allred: 7 Tales by the Master Sergeant of Alternate History. Lincoln City, OR: Rookhouse Books, 2012. 171 pages. $14.99 in trade paperback, $8.99 Kindle. Reviewed by Jonathan Langford.
Much of science fiction is written in the spirit of What if? What if humans could fly? What if there were aliens among us? What if you could go back in time and marry your own grandmother? (Thanks for that one, Heinlein!)
The best of these questions are never just about science or technology. They invite us, instead, to consider what is real and constant â€” and what changes â€” in human hearts and minds and spirits, and societies. They prod us to reflect on our values and challenge our own easy answers about what is right and wrong. For all the conflict many readers and writers see between science fiction and religion, thereâ€™s a surprisingly large shared space (in my opinion, and that of many Mormon sf&f readers) between the kind of imagination needed to explore the stars, if only mentally, and a cosmology that sees the bounds of current mortality as merely a proscenium on eternity. Or maybe itâ€™s mortality thatâ€™s the strictly bounded stage, and religion â€” and imaginative fiction â€” a mental transition space between where we are and the boundless limits of possibility?
Allredâ€™s stories explore that space. They ask not only what if history had been a little bit different, what if the Mormons had repeating rifles during the Utah War, but also what if (for example) a magical implement could remove the signs of cowardice, at the price of blood? Or T. H. Huxley wound up after death in a Hell he didnâ€™t believe in during life? The answers tickle the imagination; at their best, they engage the heart as well.
Beyond a doubt, the two strongest stories in this collection are â€œFor the Strength of the Hillsâ€ and â€œHymnalâ€: the first an alternate history of the Utah war from the point of view of a non-Mormon, which Iâ€™ve reviewed previously; the second an end-of-the-universe story told from the point of view of a devout Mormon, with musings on entropy and what it is that enables people to press forward in the face of apparent meaninglessness, whether a kind of humanistic courage (as in the case of the main characterâ€™s atheist friend) or the power of loving relationships. And poetry. Really, â€œHymnalâ€ is largely about poetry, and faith. A story that is both thoughtful and ultimately heartwarming, in the best tradition of humanistic science fiction â€” quickened by Tennyson and â€œwhitebreadâ€ Mormon faith.
The other stories are a mixed bag. â€œOur Gunther Likes to Digâ€ is a one-idea story that mostly succeeds because it is no longer than it ought to be (and I canâ€™t say more without spoiling it). â€œForged Verbatimâ€ is a fairly straightforward story (vignette might be a more appropriate term) set in the time of the Crusades, with a fantasy premise about the magical power of the hammer used to crucify Jesus. â€œAdd Infinitumâ€ is a debate between the ghosts of T. H. Huxley and Samuel Wilberforce that is good for several chuckles and belongs on the same shelf with Steven Peckâ€™s A Short Stay in Hell. â€œAnd Dream Such Dreamsâ€ weaves together the strands of Lincolnâ€™s speech at Gettysburg, rhetoric professor Joshua Chamberlainâ€™s pivotal role during the battle at Gettysburg, and then Chamberlainâ€™s speech at Gettysburg 25 years later dedicating the monuments to Maine solders killed during the battle, in a meditation that produces not an alternate history but a partial, private explanation of the history we have.
Iâ€™ve skipped â€œEast of Appomattox,â€ the only other really genuine alternate history story besides â€œFor the Strength of the Hills,â€ which like that story involves Robert E. Lee as a central character. There is, Iâ€™ve observed, something about Robert E. Lee â€” the tragic mismatch of great ability, admirable character, and corrupt cause â€” that makes you think (wistfully) about other ways things might have been. In â€œEast of Appomattox,â€ the historical fork in the road is the battle of Gettysburg, which the South won â€” leading to Lincolnâ€™s lynching and a Confederacy which, five years after the conclusion of the war, is still trying to gain support from Britain â€” and which, Lee discovers in a dramatic twist near the end of the story, has decided that it cannot allow its individual states to emancipate their slaves. In the end, Lee finds himself facing once more the same dilemma of duty he had answered wrongly once before. Itâ€™s a good story, almost haunting at some points: one of the best crafted in the collection, and one which (like all the best alternate history) supplies mental images so vivid they sit beside the real history in my mind.
Like I said, a mixed bag. But I did notice some commonalities: one of style, and one of substance.
First, the stylistic one: A lot of the story goes on inside the head of the main character(s), and the rest is mostly dialogue. In short, these arenâ€™t action stories. This doesnâ€™t bother me at all; I tend to like dialogue-driven stories, and to my way of thinking, one of the great advantages of fiction is the opportunity it gives to get inside someone elseâ€™s head. This stylistic tendency is one of the things that contributes to the thoughtful tone of Allredâ€™s writing. (Which makes me wonder: How does this work with his ? I may have to read some just to find out.)
The other commonality is a tone of underlying seriousness. Most of these stories (and all the best ones) revolve around choices characters have to make: choices between conflicting values, choices to sacrifice one thing for something more important. Even â€œForged Verbatimâ€ is partly about the possibility of future choices, though itâ€™s also about consequences for past (wrong) choices, as is â€œGunther.â€ Even â€œAdd Infinitumâ€ can be squeezed into that framework, if you try hard enough. (Okay, maybe not.)
And perhaps thereâ€™s another commonality as well. The attraction of alternate history lies in our part in the sense that underneath the chances of historical circumstance, there is an essence we can come to understand more fully by imaginatively exploring how it could have operated if things were different: an essence of individual men and women, of morals, of human nature as a whole, of the ideas and trends and emotions that move history. It seems to me that this thread of unchanging underlying essence contrasting with the flux of temporal change and the (superficial) specifics of circumstance runs through Allredâ€™s other stories as well, from the timeless morality of â€œForged Verbatimâ€ to â€œHymnalâ€™sâ€ evocation of those lines from â€œAbide with Meâ€: â€œChange and decay in all around I see; O thou who changest not, abide with me.â€ By playing with change and decay and choice and consequence, Allredâ€™s stories focus on the part that doesnâ€™t change, whether in our ethics or our individual character. (Well, except for â€œAdd Infinitum.â€ But six out of seven isn’t bad…)
Thereâ€™s a fundamental marketing problem involved in the assembly of a single-author anthology. To wit: how much material is needed to justify a readerâ€™s purchase? Iâ€™m afraid that for me, the answer is: more than what I see here.
Part of the problem (at least, for me as a reviewer) is that the two best stories in the collection are already easily available to LDS readers (through Irreantum and Dispensation, respectively), and so of the seven stories in this collection, there were only five I didnâ€™t already have on my shelf. Seven stories for $14.99: thatâ€™s more than two dollars a story. Are these stories worth that? For several of them, the answer is no.
The problem isnâ€™t the mixed quality of the stories. Iâ€™ve never seen any anthology (especially a single-author anthology) that isnâ€™t a combination of the good, the bad, and indifferent. The best you can ever hope for is a couple of standout stories. And this anthology has that. The problem is that it doesnâ€™t have much more. Seven stories just werenâ€™t enough to carry the weight, especially not when several of them donâ€™t amount to much in terms of content and word count. There werenâ€™t enough pleasant discoveries for me to justify the cover price. (Though, in fact, I didnâ€™t pay for this one, but received it as a review copy.)
And then there are the proofing errors, which are pretty atrocious, particularly in â€œHymnal.â€ Checking against the version in Dispensation, a surprising number appear there as well. The one that bothers me most, though, canâ€™t be put down to proofing error, although a good editor should have caught it. Twice â€” including once at the end of the story â€” the characters quote from the conclusion of Tennysonâ€™s poem Ulysses, which has long been one of my favorites:
We are not now that strength which in old days
Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we areâ€”
The problem is that without the line before these â€” or at least the last word (â€œthoughâ€) â€” the part quoted above doesnâ€™t make sense, even grammatically:
Though much is taken, much abides; and though
We are not now that strength which in old days
Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we areâ€”
I canâ€™t help but think that this story deserved one more good edit as well as a good proofread â€” which it didnâ€™t get, either here or in Dispensation.
Which isnâ€™t to say that this anthology lacks virtues. I like the prefatory notes from Allred, and his Introduction, and the interview with him at the back. The layout is excellent, and the cover is (in my view) gorgeous. But it needed more content, and they needed to hire (or bribe) a good editor.
Iâ€™m still an Allred fan â€” now more than ever. I think heâ€™s one of our most talented and nuanced authors of short fiction dealing with Mormon themes in an imaginative way. I still find â€œFor the Strength of the Hillsâ€ stunning, an absolute must-read in Mormon historical fiction (alternative fiction though it is), and â€œHymnalâ€ one of those daring stories that succeeds somehow in communicating faith to those who may not share it. But I canâ€™t really call this anthology a success. Better, ideally, to have put together a larger collection (if the material exists for it) â€” or make these stories available individually. Which, in fact, has been done in eBook version, for all except â€œAdd Infinitum.â€ That there may continue to be more Allred to include in some future collection is my hope and plea.